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Research Articles, Books, and Resources


  • Fletcher, J.M., Fuchs, L.S., Barnes, M.A. (2007).  Learning Disabilities:  From Identification to Intervention. New York, NY: Guilford Press
  • Lyon, G. R. (1995). Research initiatives in learning disabilities: Contributions from scientists supported by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Journal of Child Neurology, 10, S120-126.
  • Rayner, K., Foorman, B. R., Perfetti, C. A., Pesetsky, D., & Seidenberg M. S. (2001). How psychological science informs the teaching of reading. Psychological Science, 2(2 Suppl), 31-74.
  • Shaywitz, S. E. (2003). Overcoming Dyslexia: A New and Complete Science-Based Program for Reading Problems at Any Level. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.
  • Wolf, M. (2008). Proust and the Squid: The Story and Science of the Reading Brain. New York, NY: Harper Perennial Publishers. (Hardcover edition published 2007 by Harper Publishers).


  • Fletcher, J. M., Lyon, G. R., Fuch, L. S., & Barnes, M. A. (2007). Learning Disabilities: From Identification to Intervention. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
  • Lyon, G.R., Shaywitz, S.E., & Shaywitz, B.A. (2003).  Defining dyslexia, comorbidity, teachers’ knowledge of Language and Reading:  A definition of dyslexia.  Annals of Dyslexia, 53, 1-14.


  • Goswami, U. (2002). Phonology, reading development and dyslexia: A cross-linguistic perspective. Annals of Dyslexia. 52, 141-163.
  • Goulandris, N. (Ed.). (2002). Dyslexia in Different Languages. London, UK: Whurr Publishers.
  • Leong, C. K., & Joshi, R. M. (Eds.). (1997). Cross-Language Studies of Learning to Read and Spell. Dordrecht, Holland: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  • Lundberg, I. (2002). Second language learning and reading with the  additional load of dyslexia. Annals of Dyslexia. 52, 165-187.
  • Paulesu, E., Démonet, J. F., Fazio, F., McCrory, E., Chanoine, V., Brunswick, N., Cappa, S. F., Cossu, G., Habib, M., Frith, C. D., & Frith, U. (2001). Dyslexia: Cultural diversity and biological unity. Science, 291, 2165-2167.
  • Siok, W. T., Perfetti, C. A., Jin, Z., & Tan, L. H. (2004). Biological abnormality of impaired reading is constrained by culture. Nature, 431(7004), 71-76.


  • Alarcon, et al. (1995). Etiology of individual differences in reading performance: A test of sex limitation. Behavioral Genetics, 25, 17-23. 
  • Katusic, S. K., Colligan, R. C., Barbaresi, W. J., Schaid, D. J., & Jacobsen, S. J. (2001). Incidence of reading disability in a population-based birth cohort, 1976-1982, Rochester, Minn. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 76(11), 1075-1077.
  • Liederman, et al. (1995). The sex ratios of families with a neurodevelopmentally disordered child. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 36, 511-517.
  • Rutter, M., Caspi, A., Fergusson, D., Horwood, L. J., Goodman, R., Maughan, B., et al. (2004). Sex Differences in Developmental Reading Disability: New Findings From 4 Epidemiological Studies. Journal of the American Medical Association, 291(16), 2007-2012.
  • Shaywitz, S. E., Shaywitz, B. A., Fletcher, J. M., & Escobar, M. D. (1990). Prevalence of reading disability in boys and girls: Results of the Connecticut Longitudinal Study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 264(8), 998-1002.


  • Alexander, A. W., & Slinger-Constant, A. M. (2004). Current status of treatments for dyslexia: Critical review. Journal of Child Neurology, 19(10), 744-758.
  • Lovett, M. W., Barron, R.W., Benson, N.J. (2003). Effective remediation of word identification and decoding difficulties in school-age children with reading disabilities.  In H. Lee Swanson, Karen Harris, & Steve Graham (Eds), Handbook of Learning Disabilities.  New York:  Guilford Publications.
  • Lovett, M. W., De Palma, M., Frijters, J. C., Steinbach, K. A., Temple, M., Benson, N. J., et al. (2008). Interventions for reading difficulties: A comparison of response to intervention by ELL and EFL struggling readers. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 41(4), 333-352.
  • Lovett, M.W., Lacerenza, L., Borden, S.L., Frijters, J.C., Seteinbach, K.A., & DePalma, M. (2000).  Components of effective remediation for developmental reading disabilities: combining phonological and strategy-based instruction to improve outcomes.  Journal of Educational Psychology, 92, 263-283.
  • Mathes, P. G., Denton, C. A., Fletcher, J. M., Anthony, J. L., Francis, D. J., & Schatschneider, C. (2005). The effects of theoretically different instruction and student characteristics on the skills of struggling readers. Reading Research Quarterly, 40, 148–182.
  • Scanlon, D.M., Vellutino, F.R., Small, S.G., Fanuele, D.P., & Sweeney, J.M. (2005). Severe reading difficulties--Can they be prevented? A comparison of prevention and intervention approaches. Exceptionality, 13(4), 209-227.
  • Scammaca, N., Vaughn, S., Roberts, G., Wanzek, J., &Torgesen, J. K. (2007). Extensive reading interventions in grades k– 3: From research to practice. Portsmouth, NH: RMC Research Corporation, Center on Instruction. 
  • Shaywitz, S., Morris, R., & Shaywitz, B. (2008). The education of dyslexic children from childhood to young adulthood. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 451-475.
  • Torgesen, J.K. (2004). Lessons Learned From the Last 20 Years of Research on Interventions for Students who Experience Difficulty Learning to Read.  In McCardle, P. & Chhabra, V. (Eds.)  The voice of evidence in reading research.  Baltimore: Brookes Publishing.
  • Torgesen, J.K. (2005).  Recent discoveries from research on remedial interventions for children with dyslexia.  In M. Snowling and C. Hulme (Eds.).  The Science of Reading.  (pp. 521-537). Oxford: Blackwell Publishers
  • Torgesen, J.K., Alexander, A. W., Wagner, R.K., Rashotte, C.A., Voeller, K., Conway, T. & Rose, E. (2001).  Intensive remedial instruction for children with severe reading disabilities: Immediate and long-term outcomes from two instructional approaches.  Journal of Learning Disabilities, 34, 33-58.
  • Vellutino, F. R., Scanlon, D. M., Sipay, E. R., Small S. G., Pratt, A., Chen R., & Denckla, M. B.  (1996).  Cognitive profiles of difficult-to-remediate and readily remedeated poor readers:  Early intervention as a vehicle for distinguishing between cognitive and experiential deficits as basic causes of specific reading disability.  Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 601-638.


  • Fuchs, L. S. (2003). Assessing intervention responsiveness: Conceptual and technical issues. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 18(3), 172-186.
  • Fuchs, D., Mock, D., Morgan, P. L., & Young, C. L. (2003). Responsiveness-to-intervention: Definitions, evidence, and implications for the learning disabilities construct. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 18(3), 157-171.
  • Vaughn, S., & Fuchs, L. S. (2003). Redefining learning disabilities as inadequate response to instruction: The promis and potential problems. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 18(3), 137-146.
  • Vaughn, S., Linan-Thompson, S., & Hickman, P. (2003). Response to instruction as a means of identifying students with reading/learning disabilities. Exceptional Children, 69, 391-409.
  • Vaughn, S., Wanzek, J., Woodruff, A. L., & Linan-Thompson, S. (2007). A three-tier model for preventing reading difficulties and early identification of students with reading disabilities. In D. Haager, J. Klingner & S. Vaughn (Eds.), Evidence-Based Reading Practices for Response to Intervention (pp. 11-28). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing.
  • Vellutino, F. R., Scanlon, D. M., Small, S., & Fanuele, D. P. (2006). Response to intervention as a vehicle for distinguishing between children with and without reading disabilities: Evidence for the role of kindergarten and first grade intervention. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(2), 157-169.


  • Ehri, L.C. (2002). Phases of acquisition in learning to read words and implications for teaching. In R. Stainthorp and P. Tomlinson (Eds.) Learning and teaching reading.  London: British Journal of Educational Psychology Monograph Series II.
  • Fuchs, L.S., Fuchs, D., Hosp, M.K., & Jenkins, J.R. (2001). Oral reading fluency as an indicator of reading competence: A theoretical, empirical, and historical analysis. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5, 239-256.
  • Hudson, R.F., Lane, H.B., & Pullen, P.C. (2005). Reading fluency assessment and instruction: What, why, and how? The Reading Teacher, 58(8), 702–714.
  • Klauda, S. L., & Guthrie, J. T. (2008). Relationships of three components of reading fluency to reading comprehension. Journal  of Educational Psychology, 100(2), 310-321.
  • Meyer, M. S., & Felton, R. H. (1999). Repeated reading to enhance fluency: Old approaches and new directions. Annals of Dyslexia, 49, 283-306.
  • Torgesen, J. K., Rashotte, C. A., Alexander, A. (2001). Principles of fluency instruction in reading: Relationships with established empirical outcomes. In M. Wolf (Ed.), Dyslexia, Fluency, and the Brain. Parkton, MD: York Press.


  • Moats, L. C. (1995). Spelling: Development, Disability, and Instruction. Baltimore, MD: York Press.
  • Treiman, R. (1993). Beginning to Spell. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Treiman, R. (1998). Why spelling? The benefits of incorporating spelling into beginning reading instruction. In J. L. Metsala & L. C. Ehri (Eds.), Word Recognition in Beginning Literacy (pp. 289-313), Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Treiman, R. (2006). Knowledge about letters as a foundation for reading and spelling. In R. M. Joshi & P. G. Aaron (Eds.), Handbook of Orthography and Literacy. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Venezky, R. (1999). The American Way of Spelling. New York: Guilford Press.


  • Aaron, P. G., Malatesha Joshi, R., & Quatroche, D. (2008). Becoming a Professional Reading Teacher: What to Teach, How to Teach, Why it Matters. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
  • Beck, I. L., McKeown, M. G., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing Words to Life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
  • Fry, E. B., & Kress, J. E. (2006). The Reading Teacher's Book of Lists (5 ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  • Gaskins, I. W. (2005). Success with Struggling Readers: The Benchmark School Approach. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
  • Haager, D., Klingner, J. K., & Vaughn, S. (2008). Evidence-Based Reading Practices for Response to Intervention. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
  • Klinger, J., Vaughn, S., & Boardman, A. (2007). Teaching Reading Comprehension to Students with Learning Difficulties. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  • Lovett, M. W., Lacerenza, L., De Palma, M., Benson, N. J., Steinbach, K. A., & Frijters, J. C. (2008). Preparing teachers to remediate reading disabilities in high school: What is needed for effective professional development? Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(4), 1083-1097.
  • Moats, L. (2000). Speech to Print: Language Essentials for Teachers. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing.
  • Pressley, M. (2006). Reading Instruction that Works: The Case for Balanced Teaching (Solving Problems in the Teaching of Literacy) (3 ed.). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
  • Pressley, M., Allington, R. L., Wharton-McDonald, R., Block, C. C., & Morrow, L. M. (2001). Learning to Read: Lessons from Exemplary first grade classrooms. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.


  • Cope, N., Harold, D., Hill, G., Moskvina, V., Stevenson, J., Holmans, P., et al. (2005). Strong evidence that KIAA0319 on chromosome 6p is a susceptibility gene for developmental dyslexia. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 76(4), 581-591.
  • Fisher, S. E., & DeFries, J. C. (2002). Developmental dyslexia: Genetic dissection of a complex cognitive trait. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 3, 767-780.
  • Fisher, S. E., & Francks, C. (2006). Genes, cognition and dyslexia: Learning to read the genome. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10, 250-257.
  • Meaburn, E. L., Harlaar, N., Craig, I. W., Schalkwyk, L. C., & Plomin, R. (2008). Quantitative trait locus association scan of early reading disability and ability using pooled DNA and 100K SNP microarrays in a sample of 5760 children. Molecular Psychiatry, 13, 729-740.
  • Meng, H., Smith, S. D., Hager, K., Held, M., Liu, J., Olson, R. K., et al. (2007). DCDC2 is associated with reading disablity and modulates neuronal development in the brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102(47), 17053-17058.
  • Paracchini, S., Scerri, T., & Monaco, A. P. (2007). The genetic lexicon of dyslexia. Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics, 8, 57-79.
  • Paracchini, S., Steer, C. D., Buckingham, L.-L., Morris, A. P., Ring, S., Scerri, T., et al. (2008). Association of the KIAA0319 dyslexia susceptibility gene with reading skills in the general population. American Journal of Psychiatry, DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.07121872.
  • Pennington, B. F. (1995). Genetics of Learning Disabilities. Journal of Child Neurology, 10, S69-77.
  • Pennington, B. F. (1999). Toward an integrated understanding of dyslexia: Genetic, neurological, and cognitive mechanisms. Development and Psychopathology, 11, 629-654.
  • Plomin, R., & Kovas, Y. (2005). Generalist genes and learning disabilities. Psychological Bulletin, 131(4), 592-617.
  • Thapar, A., Langley, K., O'Donovan, M. C., & Owen, M. (2006). Refining the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder phenotype for molecular genetic studies. Molecular Psychiatry, 11, 714-720.
  • Williams, J., & O'Donovan, M. C. (2006). The genetics of developmental dyslexia. European Journal of Human Genetics, 14, 681-689.


  • Eden, G. F., Jones, K. M., Cappell, K., Gareau, L., Wood, F. B., Zeffiro, T. A., et al. (2004). Neural changes following remediation in adult developmental dyslexia. Neuron, 44(3), 411-422.
  • Eden: G. F., & Moats, L. (2002). The role of neuroscience in the Remediation of students with dyslexia. National Neuroscience, 5(Suppl), 1080-1084.
  • Eden, G. F., & Zeffiro, T. A. (1998). Neural systems affected in developmental dyslexia revealed by functional neuroimaging. Neuron, 21(2), 279-282.
  • Helenius, P., Salmelin, R., Service, E., Connolly, J. F., Leinonen, S., & Lyytinen, H. (2002). Cortical activation during spoken-word segmentation in nonreading-impaired and dyslexic adults. Journal of Neuroscience, 22(7), 2936-2944.
  • Leonard, C. M., Eckert, M. A., Given, B. K., Berninger, V. W., & Eden, G. F. (2006). Individual differences in anatomy predict reading and oral language deficits. Brain, 129(Pt 12), 3329-3342.
  • Maisog, J. M., Einbinder, E. R., Flowers, D. L., Turkeltaub, P. E., & Eden, G. F. (2008). A meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies of dyslexia. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1145, 237-259.
  • Ramus, F., Rosen, S., Dakin, S. C., Day, B. L. Castellote, J. M., White, S., & Frith, U. (2003). Theories of developmental dyslexia: Insights from a multiple case study of dyslexic adults. Brain, 126(Pt 4), 841-865.
  • Renvall, H., & Hari, R. (2002). Auditory cortical responses to speech-like stimuli in dyslexic adults. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14(5), 757-768.
  • Shaywitz, B. A., Shaywitz, S. E., Pugh, K. R., Mencl, W. E., Fulbright, R. K., Skudlarski, P., Constable, R. T., Marchione, K. E., Fletcher, J. M., Lyon, G. R., & Gore, J. C. (2002). Disruption of posterior brain systems for reading in children with developmental dyslexia. Biological Psychiatry, 52(2), 101-110.
  • Shaywitz, S. E., & Shaywitz, B. A. (2008). Paying attention to reading: The neurobiology of reading and dyslexia. Development and Psychopathology, 20, 1329-1349.
  • Virsu, V., Lahti-Nuuttila, P., & Laasonen, M. (2003). Crossmodal Temporal processing acuity impairment aggravates with age in developmental dyslexia. Neuroscience Letters, 336(3), 151-154


  • Brady, S. (1997). Ability to encode phonological representations: An underlying difficulty of poor readers. In B.A. Blachman (Ed.) Foundations of Reading Acquisition and Dyslexia. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Catts, H. W., Fey, M., Zhang, X., & Tomblin, J. B. (2001). Estimating the risk of future reading difficulties in kindergarten: A research-based model and its clinical implication. Language, Speech, & Hearing Services in Schools, 32, 38-50.
  • Elbro, C., Borstrom, I., & Petersen, D.K. (1998). Predicting dyslexia from kindergarten: The importance of distinctiveness of phonological representations of lexical items. Reading Research Quarterly, 33, 36-60.
  • Gough, P., & Tunmer, W. (1986). Decoding, reading and reading disability. Remedial and Special Education, 7, 6-10.
  • Liberman, I.Y., Shankweiler, D., & Liberman, A.M. (1989).  The alphabetic principle and learning to read.  In Shankweiler, D. & Liberman, I.Y. (Eds.), Phonology and reading disability:  Solving the reading puzzle(pp.1-33).  Ann Arbor, MI: U. of Michigan Press.
  • Perfetti, C., Beck, I. & Hughes, C. (1987). Phonemic knowledge and learning to read are reciprocal: A longitudinal study of first-grade children. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 33, 283-319.
  • Post, Y., Foorman, B., & Hiscock, M. (1997). Speech perception and speech production as indicators of reading difficulty. Annals of Dyslexia, 47, 1-25.
  • Scarborough, H. (1990). Very early language deficits in dyslexic children. Child Development, 61, 1728-43.
  • Scarborough, H. (1998). Predicting the future achievement of second graders with reading disabilities: Contributions of phonemic awareness, verbal memory, rapid naming, and IQ. Annals of Dyslexia, 48, 115-136.
  • Share, D. L., & Stanovich, K. E. (1995). Cognitive processes in early reading development: Accommodating individual differences into a model of acquisition. Issues in Education: Contributions from Educational Psychology, 1, 1-57.
  • Snowling, M. J. & Nation, K. (1997). Language, phonology and learning to read. In C. Hulme & M. Snowling (Eds.) Dyslexia: Biology, Cognition, and Intervention. London: Whurr Publishers, Ltd.
  • Torgesen, J.K. (1999).  Phonologically based reading disabilities:  Toward a coherent theory of one kind of learning disability.  In R.J. Sternberg & L. Spear-Swerling (Eds.), Perspectives on Learning Disabilities. (pp. 231-262). New Haven: Westview Press.


  • Breier, J. I., Gray, L. C., Fletcher, J. M., Foorman, B., & Class, P. 2002). Perception of speech and nonspeech stimuli by children with and without reading disability and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 82(3), 226-250.
  • Goswami, U., Thomson, J., Richardson, U., Stainthorp, R., Hughes, D., Rosen, S., & Scott, S. K. (2002). Amplitude envelope onsets and developmental dyslexia: A new hypothesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America, 99(16), 10911-10916.
  • Hari, R., & Renvall, H. (2001). Impaired processing of rapid stimulus sequences in dyslexia. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 5(12), 525-532.
  • Heiervang, E., Stevenson, J., & Hugdahl, K. (2002). Auditory processing in children with dyslexia. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43(7), 931-938.
  • Helenius, P., Salmelin, R., Richardson, U., Leinonen, S., & Lyytinen, H. (2002). Abnormal auditory cortical activation in dyslexia 100 msec after speech onset. Journal of Neuroscience, 14(4), 603-617.
  • Laasonen, M., Service, E., & Virsu, V. (2002). Crossmodal temporal order and processing acuity in developmentally dyslexic young adults. Brain Language, 80(3), 340-354.
  • Merzenich, M. M., Jenkins, W. M., Johnston, P., Schreiner, C., Miller, S. L., & Tallal, P. (1996). Temporal processing deficits of language-learning impaired children ameliorated by training. Science, 271, 77-81.
  •  Talcott, J. B., Witton, C., Hebb, G. S., Stoodley, C. J., Westwood, E. A., France, S. J., Hansen, P. C., & Stein, J. F. (2002). On the relationship between dynamic visual and auditory processing and literacy skills: Results from a large primary-school study. Dyslexia, 8(4), 204-225.
  • Van Ingelghem, M., van Wieringen, A., Wouters, J., Vandnbussche, E., Onghena, P., & Ghesquiere, P. (2002). Psychophysical evidence for a general temporal processing deficit in children with dyslexia. Neuroreport, 12(16), 3603-3607.
  • Witton, C., Stein, J. F., Stoodley, C. J., Rosner, B. S., & Talcott, J. B. (2002). Separate influences of acoustic AM and FM sensitivity on the phonological decoding skills of impaired and normal readers. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14(6), 866-874.


  • Christenson, G. N., Griffin, J. R., & Taylor, M. (2001). Failure of blue-tinted lenses to change reading scores of dyslexic individuals. Optometry, 71(10), 627-633.
  • Eden, G. F., VanMeter, J. W., Rumsey, J. M., Maisog, J. M., Woods, R. P., & Zeffiro, T. A. (1996). Abnormal processing of visual motion in dyslexia revealed by functional brain imaging. Nature, 382(6586), 66-69.
  • Solan, H. A. (2002). Response to Christenson, Griffin, and Taylor. Optometry, 73(1), 7.